Refresher: Situational Crime Prevention

Ronald Clarke defined situational crime prevention as “comprising measures directed at highly specific forms of crime that involve the management, design, or manipulation of the immediate environment in as systematic and permanent a way as possible so as to reduce the opportunities for crime and increase its risks as perceived by a wide range of offenders.” (p. 225, in R.V. Clarke. (1983). “Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Scope.” In Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, vol. 4, ed. by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.)

In 2003, he and Derek Cornish produced the following chart, providing examples for 25 techniques for situational crime prevention in “Opportunities, Precipitators and Criminal Decisions: A Reply to Wortley’s Critique of Situational Crime Prevention” Crime Prevention Studies 16: 41-96.

The chart is reprinted here for your use. The 25 techniques are organized into five categories of measures intended to (1) increase effort; (2) increase risks; (3) reduce rewards; (4) reduce provocations; and (5) remove excuses.

In an effort to provide helpful suggestions in areas that have not yet been fully studied or evaluated, we have included ideas for responses and activities that may not yet be considered evidence-based or evidence-informed. Therefore, not all actions and strategies included within this App are evidence-based or evidence-informed.