High-Crime Areas (“Hot Spots”)
This is a basic, go-to strategy if you only have short periods of time in-between calls for service. The Koper Principle states that officers do not have to stay at hot spots of crime for long periods of time to create a deterrent effect after they leave. This is a general (no specific crime problem) strategy that can also be used in conjunction with other strategies.


1. Select a few (2-5) crime concentrations in specific places (problem blocks, intersections and alleys) to focus on during your shift using crime maps and analysis, or if not available, determine addresses that have high levels of calls for service.

2. When not answering calls for service, go to these locations on a random basis, and patrol (including foot patrol) for 15-20 minutes. Repeat periodically and unpredictably. If problems are inside a store or business, walk inside of that location in addition to outside patrol.

3. In high violent crime locations, consider conducting traffic and pedestrian stops.

Two important notes:

(a) When conducting traffic and pedestrian stops and engaging in stop-question-and-frisk, legality and professionalism are imperative. Please review the Refresher on Stop and Frisk for more information.

(b) How officers treat individuals that they stop matters. Courtesy, professionalism, restraint, and empathy should always guide officer behavior. For more information on this point, see the strategies and tactics under “Community Trust & Satisfaction.”

Additional resource:

Key studies on hot spots:

In an effort to provide helpful suggestions in areas that have not yet been fully studied or evaluated, we have included ideas for responses and activities that may not yet be considered evidence-based or evidence-informed. Therefore, not all actions and strategies included within this App are evidence-based or evidence-informed.