1. Select a few (2-5) crime concentrations in specific places (problem blocks, intersections and alleys) to focus on during your shift using crime maps and analysis, or if not available, determine addresses that have high levels of calls for service.
2. When not answering calls for service, go to these locations on a random basis, and patrol (including foot patrol) for 15-20 minutes. Repeat periodically and unpredictably. If problems are inside a store or business, walk inside of that location in addition to outside patrol.
3. In high violent crime locations, consider conducting traffic and pedestrian stops.
Two important notes:
(a) When conducting traffic and pedestrian stops and engaging in stop-question-and-frisk, legality and professionalism are imperative. Please review the Refresher on Stop and Frisk for more information.
(b) How officers treat individuals that they stop matters. Courtesy, professionalism, restraint, and empathy should always guide officer behavior. For more information on this point, see the strategies and tactics under “Community Trust & Satisfaction.”
- Koper Principle One-pager (PDF)
- Five Things You Need to Know About Hot Spots Policing & the “Koper Curve” Theory
Key studies on hot spots:
- Sherman, L. & Weisburd, D. (1995). General deterrent effects of police patrol in crime “hot spots”: a randomized, controlled trial. Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 625-648.
- Braga, A. A., & Bond, B. J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.
- Telep, C.W., Mitchell, R.J., & Weisburd, D. (2014). How much time should the police spend at crime hot spots? Answers from a police agency directed randomized field trial in Sacramento, California. Justice Quarterly, 31, 905-933.